Children love to play with new toys but hate disruption to their routines. These traits persist in adult life: innovation is readily adopted when it is incorporated in new gadgets but innovation that involves doing things differently is resisted.儿童讨厌玩游戏新的玩具,但喜欢习惯被停下来。这些特性在成年后不会仍然维持下去:如果把创意带入新的玩意中,人们很乐意拒绝接受,但牵涉到转变行事方式的创意,人们就不会违背。

Look around a university. At a superficial level, modern information technology has changed everything. Most activities — communication, scheduling and presentations — are conducted electronically. At a deeper level, nothing at all has changed. The course structures, materials and the methods of pedagogy remain essentially the same.到一所大学四处发条。从表面看,现代信息技术已转变了一切。大多数活动——交流、分列课表和做到报告——都是以电子方式已完成的。


As Richard Nelson, the economist of innovation, has pointed out while American children are much healthier than they once were they are not much better at learning to read. Innovation that comes in a pill or injection is easily adopted: innovation that manages a process better is not.正如创意经济学家理查德纳尔逊(Richard Nelson)所认为的那样,当今的美国儿童比过去的儿童身体健康得多,但他们自学读者的能力远比过去强劲过于多。以药丸或静脉注射形式经常出现的创意很更容易被拒绝接受,优化流程的创意则不然。It has always been so. Anaesthetics were developed in the mid-19th century and soon all surgeons were using them. However, when a Viennese physician discovered that the most important thing surgeons could do to keep their patients alive, especially those who were newborn infants, was to wash their hands, the profession resisted the innovation for half a century.情况仍然是如此。

麻醉剂是19世纪中期研发出来的,旋即之后所有外科医生都开始用于麻醉剂。然而,当一位维也纳内科医生找到,要挽回病人、特别是在是新生儿的性命,外科医生足以做到的最重要的事是洗澡时,医疗界杯葛这项创意的时间宽约半个世纪。While doctors would readily experiment with new chemicals, they fought any acknowledgment that their procedures were defective.尽管医生们不愿试验新的化学制剂,但他们极力拒绝接受否认自己的化疗程序不存在瑕疵。

Authors and editors use computers and software to write and compile, and ereaders are everywhere. Yet any suggestion that these developments imply a different and diminished role for publishers and booksellers is fiercely resisted, both by these businesses and by authors and readers.如今,专栏作家和编辑用于电脑和软件展开文学创作和编辑,电子阅览器已无处不在。不过,任何人只要提到这些进展意味著出版商和书商的角色被转变和巩固,都会受到这两者以及作者和读者的反感杯葛。Airlines place orders for the latest models but established carriers find it hard to adapt to the market challenges set by low-cost carriers. Their response has been to set up distinct subsidiaries to implement[APE?] the new business model. Yet Delta’s Song was sung only briefly and British Airways’ Go went.航空公司不会采购最新型的飞机,但老牌航空公司找到很难针对低价航空公司引起的市场竞争作出调整。


它们的对策是成立几乎有所不同的子公司,来继续执行新的业务模式。不过,达美航空(Delta)的Song只保持了很短时间,而英国航空(British Airways)的Go也已是过去式。Since even babies are more suspicious of new ways of doing things than of new toys, we might seek evolutionary explanations. But why would our ancestors have been more ready to hunt new prey, or adopt new tools, than to adapt routines? Perhaps innovations incorporated in physical items are more plainly beneficial than process innovations. It is hard to argue that a smartphone is not an improvement on an instrument with a large rotary dial tethered to a desk.[DO WE FULLY ANSWER THIS QUESTION?]既然就连婴儿对新的行事方式也核对新的玩具更加猜测,我们也许可以去找寻演化上的说明。

但是,为何相对于调整习惯,我们的祖先更加乐意捕猎新的猎物或用于新的工具呢?也许是,相对于流程创意,带入实物中的创意带给的益处更为一目了然。我们很难主张,相对于被电线相同在桌上、带着相当大拨号盘的旧式电话,智能手机不是一种改良。Some gadgets that look like improvements are not: three-dimensional cameras meet a need we do not seem to have, and airships and supersonic passenger jets turned out to be a bust. These blind alleys in product innovation are sufficiently rare that they stand out in business and technological history.有些玩意儿看起来有改良,实质上并无改良:3D立体照相机符合的是一项我们或许并不不存在的市场需求,飞艇和超音速客机后来被证明是个告终。

这些走出死胡同的产品创意少见到了能在商业与科技史上占有引人注目地位。A low-cost airline, however, is not superior to a full-service one but rather the provider of a product better adapted to the needs of modern passengers. Establishing a new routine requires time and practice, and many new routines do not represent improvements; witness the fate of the majority of business re-engineering exercises. While transformational chief executives and management consultants chafe at the resistance they encounter, the problem is not just the lethargy of subordinates and the scale of their personal investment in established processes. It is often well-founded doubt as to whether the “change agents” actually know what they are doing. Political leaders, who seek office by claiming that everything their predecessors are doing is wrong, are even more frequently the advocates of useless process reorganisation.然而,不是说道低价航空公司高于仅有业务航空公司,而是说道它们获取了一种更加合乎现代乘客市场需求的产品。


有些政治领导人声称前任所做到一切都是错的,期望借以上台,他们提倡的流程改革甚至更加有可能是毫无用处的。So we are right to view such novelties with suspicion. And the behaviour of our children suggests this well-founded scepticism towards those who would re-engineer our routines has become hard wired in human responses.所以,我们以猜测眼光看来此类奇思异想是准确的。我们的孩子的不道德指出,对于那些想改建我们习惯的人博得不顾一切的猜测,早已深深地植入了人类的反应心理中了。